Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill

Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill

|English
date of birth : 30/11/1874 | date of death : 24/01/1965
Born on November 30, 1874, England, Politician, Writer

Birth, Birthplace, Time of birth:

He was born in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, England, on November 30, 1874.

Father's name: Lord Randolph Churchill
Mother's name: Jeanette Jerome ("Jennie")
Brother: John Strange Churchill
Sister: -
Spouse: Clementine Ogilvy Hozier (m. 12-Sep-1908)
Children: Diana Churchill, Randolph Churchill, Sarah Tuchet-Jesson, Marigold Churchill, Mary Soames

Reputation, fame, nickname:

Winston Churchill

Personal Information:

Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian

Life events:

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was a British politician and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. Churchill was famous for his stubborn resistance to Hitler during the darkest hours of the Second World War. Churchill was born on November 30, 1874 in Blenheim Palace, Oxford shire, England. His father Randolph Churchill was the third son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough. As a young man of undistinguished academic accomplishment, he entered the army as a cavalry officer. He took enthusiastically to soldiering and managed to see three campaigns. He served as a cavalry officer in India and Sudan but resigned his commission in 1899 to become a war correspondent in the Boer war. Send to cover the South African war for the Morning Post; the Boers captured him in 1899. A daring escape from the prison made him an overnight celebrity. Churchill entered the Parliament in 1901 at age of 26. In 1904 he left the Conservative Party to join the Liberals and in its ranks soon achieved high office. He became home secretary in 1910 and First Lord of the Admiralty in 1911. Thus it was as the political head of the Royal Navy at the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 that he stepped onto the world stage. However an unsuccessful campaign forced Churchill’s resignation. Later he rejoined the Conservatives and was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer. He resigned office in 1931 after some controversial measures. He shot back to limelight in 1933 and 1939 by espousing anti-Nazi policies. And when the final moment of confrontation between Britain and Hitler came in 1940, he stood out as one man in whom the nation could place its trust. When Chamberlain lost the confidence of Parliament, Churchill was installed in the premiership. During 1942, the prestige Britain had won as Hitler’s only enemy allowed Churchill to sustain parity of leadership in the anti-Nazi alliance with Roosevelt and Stalin. He exulted in the success of D-day invasion (World War II) when it came in 1944. By then it was the Russo-American nexus that dominated the alliance. Shortly afterwards he lost the general elections and later returned to power in 1951. In July 1953 soon after his knighthood and the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, he suffered a stroke. He continued to hold office until 1955 when ill health and visibly failing powers caused him to resign. Sir Winston’s last 10 years were marked by an increasing feebleness in health, were occupied by occasional travel and a little painting. He died in 1965.

Education:

University: Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (1895)

Occupation and Career:

Churchill was a British Writer, Head of State and politician, best known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War.
After a brief but eventful career in the army, he became a Conservative Member of Parliament in 1900. He held many high posts in Liberal and Conservative governments during the first three decades of the century. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915. In May, 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence and remained in office until 1945. He took over the premiership again in the Conservative victory of 1951 and resigned in 1955. However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election. Queen Elizabeth II conferred on Churchill the dignity of Knighthood and invested him with the insignia of the Order of the Garter in 1953. Among the other countless honors and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963. Churchill's literary career began with campaign reports: The Story of the Malakand Field Force (1898) and The River War (1899), an account of the campaign in the Sudan and the Battle of Omdurman. In 1900, he published his only novel, Savrola, and, six years later, his first major work, the biography of his father, Lord Randolph Churchill. His other famous biography, the life of his great ancestor, the Duke of Marlborough, was published in four volumes between 1933 and 1938. Churchill's history of the First World War appeared in four volumes under the title of The World Crisis (1923-29); his memoirs of the Second World War ran to six volumes (1948-1953/54). After his retirement from office, Churchill wrote a History of the English-speaking Peoples (4 vols. 1956-58). His magnificent oratory survives in a dozen volumes of speeches, among them The Unrelenting Struggle (1942), The Dawn of Liberation (1945), and Victory (1946). Churchill, a gifted amateur painter, wrote Painting as a Pastime (1948). An autobiographical account of his youth, My Early Life, appeared in 1930.

Awards /Honors:

In addition to the honor of a state funeral, Churchill received a wide range of awards and other honours. For example, he was the first person to become an Honorary Citizen of the United States In 1945, while Churchill was mentioned by Halvdan Koht as one of seven appropriate candidates for the Nobel Prize in Peace, the nomination went to Cordell Hull. Churchill received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his numerous published works, especially his six-volume set The Second World War. In a 2002 BBC poll of the "100 Greatest Britons", he was proclaimed "The Greatest of Them All" based on approximately a million votes from BBC viewers. Churchill was also rated as one of the most influential leaders in history by TIME. Churchill College, Cambridge was founded in 1958 to memorialise him. On 29 November 1995, during a visit to the United Kingdom, President Bill Clinton of the United States announced to both Houses of Parliament that an Arleigh Burke class destroyer would be named the USS Winston S. Churchill (DDG-81). This was the first United States warship to be named after a non-citizen of the United States since 1975.

Honorary degrees:

  • University of Rochester (LLD) in 1941
  • Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts (LLD) in 1943
  • McGill University in Montreal, Canada (LLD) in 1944
  • Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri 5 March 1946
  • Leiden University in Leiden, Netherlands, honorary doctorate in 1946
  • University of Miami in Miami, Florida in 1947
  • University of Copenhagen in Copenhagen, Denmark (PhD) in 1950

Books:

  • THE STORY OF THE MALAKAND FIELD FORCE
  • THE RIVER WAR
  • SAVROLA
  • LONDON TO LADYSMITH VIA PRETORIA
  • IAN HAMILTON'S MARCH
  • MR. BRODRICK'S ARMY
  • LORD RANDOLPH CHURCHILL
  • FOR FREE TRADE
  • MY AFRICAN JOURNEY
  • LIBERALISM AND THE SOCIAL PROBLEM
  • THE PEOPLE'S RIGHTS
  • THE WORLD CRISIS
  • MY EARLY LIFE: A ROVING COMMISSION
  • INDIA
  • THOUGHTS AND ADVENTURES / AMID THESE STORMS
  • MARLBOROUGH: HIS LIFE AND TIMES
  • GREAT CONTEMPORARIES
  • ARMS AND THE COVENANT / WHILE ENGLAND SLEPT
  • STEP BY STEP 1936-1939
  • INTO BATTLE / BLOOD SWEAT AND TEARS
  • THE UNRELENTING STRUGGLE
  • THE END OF THE BEGINNING
  • ONWARDS TO VICTORY
  • THE DAWN OF LIBERATION
  • VICTORY
  • WAR SPEECHES 1940-1945
  • SECRET SESSION SPEECHES
  • THE SECOND WORLD WAR
  • THE SINEWS OF PEACE
  • PAINTING AS A PASTIME
  • EUROPE UNITE
  • IN THE BALANCE
  • THE WAR SPEECHES DEFINITIVE EDITION
  • STEMMING THE TIDE
  • A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING PE0PLES
  • THE UNWRITTEN ALLIANCE
  • FRONTIERS AND WARS
  • YOUNG WINSTON'S WARS
  • IF I LIVED MY LIFE AGAIN
  • WINSTON S. CHURCHILL: THE COMPLETE SPEECHES
  • THE COLLECTED ESSAYS OF SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL
  • THE DREAM

Hobbies and personal interests:

Winston Churchill's hobbies were reading, writing, painting, and sketching.

Death, place of death, Time of death, place of burial:

He died at his London home, at age 90, on the morning of Sunday 24 January 1965. He was buried at St. Martin Churchyard, Bladon, Oxfordshire, England.

Quotes and Memoirs:

  • We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give.
  • There is no such thing as a good tax.
  • Some see private enterprise as a predatory target to be shot, others as a cow to be milked, but few are those who see it as a sturdy horse pulling the wagon.
  • The inherent vice of capitalism is the unequal sharing of blessings; the inherent virtue of socialism is the equal sharing of miseries.
  • We contend that for a nation to tax itself into prosperity is like a man standing in a bucket and trying to lift himself up by the handle.
  • An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile—hoping it will eat him last.
  • The problems of victory are more agreeable than the problems of defeat, but they are no less difficult.
  • From now on, ending a sentence with a preposition is something up with which I shall not put.
  • A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject.
  • A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on.
  • Once in a while you will stumble upon the truth but most of us manage to pick ourselves up and hurry along as if nothing had happened.
  • If you are going to go through hell, keep going.
  • It is a good thing for an uneducated man to read books of quotations.
  • You have enemies? Good. That means you’ve stood up for something, sometime in your life.
  • If you have ten thousand regulations, you destroy all respect for the law.
  • You can always count on Americans to do the right thing—after they’ve tried everything else.
  • History will be kind to me for I intend to write it.
  • Writing a book is an adventure. To begin with, it is a toy and an amusement; then it becomes a mistress, and then it becomes a master, and then a tyrant. The last phase is that just as you are about to be reconciled to your servitude, you kill the monster, and fling him out to the public.
  • The farther backward you can look the farther forward you are likely to see.

References:
http://www.nobelprize.org
http://www.pitara.com
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.nndb.com
http://www.winstonchurchill.org
http://jpetrie.myweb.uga.edu