Jean-Baptiste Poquelin ( Molière)

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin ( Molière)

|French
date of birth : 15/01/1622 | date of death : 17/02/1673
Born on15-Jan-1622, Paris, France, Play writer, actor and stage manager , is considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature.

Birth, Birthplace, Time of birth:

Jean Baptiste Poquelin was born on 15 January 1622 in Paris, France

Father's name: Jean Poquelin
Mother's name: Marie Cressé
Brother: -
Sister: -
Spouse: Armande Claire Elisabeth Gresinde Béjart
Children: Louis, Esprit-Madeleine ,Pierre-Jean-Baptiste-Armand

Reputation, fame, nickname:

Molière

Personal Information:

Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight

Life events:

Early Years

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (who used the stage name Moliere), born January 15th, 1622. Moliere had a pleasant and comfortable childhood, as his father tended the king’s furniture and upholstery. He was educated at France’s finest schools, including the Jesuit College du Clermont in Paris. When he was ten years old his mother died. It was expected that Moliere would continue in his father’s trade, but he showed little interest in doing so. Instead, the young Moliere often watched the street comedians trying to sell patent medicines, and frequently attended plays at the Hotel de Bourgogne with his grandfather.

Theater

In June 1643, the 21 year old Moliere and the actress Madeleine Bejart founded the Illustre Theatre, but this endeavor went bankrupt within two years. Because he had both acting talent and legal knowledge, Moliere had served the head of the troupe. Following the failure of the Illustre Theatre, Moliere traveled with another theatre troupe. He eventually created another company of his own, for which he also wrote and directed. Through this company's success, Moliere secured the patronage of Philippe I, Duke of Orleans. Moliere’s two best-known plays from this period include L’Etourdi, ou le Contretemps and Le Docteuramoureux.

Moliere in Paris

Moliere eventually made his way to Paris, where he performed in front of the King at the Louvre. With the help of the Duke of Orleans, his company shared the theatre with the famous commedia dell'arte troupe of TiberioFiorillo. In 1659, Moliere's satire Les Precieuses ridicules premiered. The play mocked the AcademieFrancaise, a group which established the rules of the French theater, and was concerned with tradition and unity. In 1661, Moliere premiered Dom Garcie de Navarre, ou le prince jaloux, but it was a failure. The December 22nd, 1662 premiere of L'Ecole des femmes was much more successful, and Moliere's reputation began to blossom. The play's blatant comedy garnered much attention, some of it negative, all of which led Moliere to continue focusing on plays that prized innovation over classicism. The three-act version of Tartuffe premiered in 1664 and gained him even more notoriety, as it appeared to attack religion. This play, as well as Dom Juan, was censored by the Roman Catholic Church. Though the playwright's initial targets had been young society girls, he had now turned to the clergy and professional classes, which was problematic. Many people in power did not admire his desire to expose fraud and hypocrisy, especially when he leveled those attacks around them.

Later Years

Moliere's name was also besmirched by the scandal surrounding his marriage, at 40, to the 20 year old daughter of his former mistress, Madeleine. King Louis XIV was unruffled by Moliere's reputation, however, and officially honored him in 1663. Two later plays, L'Avare and Le Misanthrope, solidified his remarkable contribution to French theater. Moliere died on February 17th, 1673, from complications brought on by his performances in Le Maladeimaginaire. He had been suffering from tuberculosis for many years. After he collapsed on stage, the priest refused to administer the last rites, and it was only through the King's intervention that he was allowed to be buried at night in order to avoid further scandal. While Moliere's work may still cause some controversy in certain religious circles, it has remained profoundly impactful for many playwrights and actors, and stands a paragon of classical French theater. He died in 1673.

Education:

Having studied at the Collège de Clermont and Lycée Louis-le-Grand

Occupation and Career:

He was a playwright, actor, and director. He cofounded the troupe known as the IllustreThtre and toured the French provinces ,writing plays and acting in them. After his troupe was established in a permanent theatre in Paris under the patronage of Louis XIV, he won acclaim in the court and among bourgeois audiences for his comedy The Affected Young Ladies (1659). His other major plays include The School for Wives (1662), Tartuffe (1664; initially banned by religious authorities), The Misanthrope (1666), The Miser (1669), The Bourgeois Gentleman (1670), and The Imaginary Invalid (1673). His plays compose a portrait of all levels of 17th-century French society and are marked by their good-humoured and intelligent mockery of human vices, vanities, and follies. Despite his success, he never ceased to act and direct. Taken ill during a performance, he died of a hemorrhage within a day and was denied holy burial. He is considered the greatest French dramatist and the father of modern French comedy.

Awards /Honors:

Troupe de Monsieur

Books:

  • Le Médecinvolant (1645)
  • La Jalousie du barbouillé (1650)
  • L'Étourdiou Les Contretemps (1655)
  • Le Dépitamoureux (December 16, 1656)
  • Le Docteuramoureux (1658)
  • Louis XIV (now lost)
  • Les Précieuses ridicules (November 18, 1659)
  • Sganarelleou Le Cocuimaginaire (May 28, 1660)
  • Dom Garcie de Navarre ou Le Prince jaloux (February 4, 1661)
  • L'École des maris (June 24, 1661)
  • Les Fâcheux (August 17, 1661)
  • L'École des femmes (December 26, 1662; adapted into The Amorous Flea, 1964)
  • La Jalousie du Gros-René (April 15, 1663)
  • La Critique de l'école des femmes (June 1, 1663)
  • L'Impromptu de Versailles (October 14, 1663)
  • Le Mariageforcé (January 29, 1664)
  • Gros-René, petit enfant (April 27, 1664; now lost)
  • La Princessed'Élide (May 8, 1664)
  • Tartuffe ouL'Imposteur (May 12, 1664)
  • Dom Juan ou Le Festin de pierre (February 15, 1665)
  • L'Amourmédecin (September 15, 1665)
  • Le Misanthrope ouL'Atrabilaireamoureux (June 4, 1666)
  • Le Médecinmalgrélui (August 6, 1666)
  • Mélicerte (December 2, 1666)
  • Pastoralecomique (January 5, 1667)
  • Le SicilienouL'Amourpeintre (February 14, 1667)
  • Amphitryon (January 13, 1668)
  • George Dandinou Le Mari confondu (July 18, 1668)
  • L'AvareouL'École du mensonge (September 9, 1668)
  • Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (October 6, 1669)
  • Les Amantsmagnifiques (February 4, 1670)
  • Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (October 14, 1670)
  • Psyché (January 17, 1671) -- Psyche
  • Les Fourberies de Scapin (May 24, 1671)
  • La Comtessed'Escarbagnas (December 2, 1671)
  • Les Femmes savantes (March 11, 1672)
  • Le Maladeimaginaire (February 10, 1673)

Filmography:

  • The Country Girl
  • Le Tartuffe

Death, place of death, Time of death, place of burial:

he collapsed on stage in a fit of coughing and haemorrhaging while performing in the last play he'd written, which had lavish ballets performed to the music of Marc-Antoine Charpentier and which ironically was entitled Le Maladeimaginaire. Molière insisted on completing his performance. Afterwards he collapsed again with another, larger haemorrhage before being taken home, where he died a few hours later, without receiving the last rites because two priests refused to visit him while a third arrived too late ,he died February 17, 1673 in Paris, France

Quotes and Memoirs:

I recover my property wherever I find it
One is easily fooled by that which one loves.
I will not leave you until I have seen you hanged
To pull the chestnuts from the fire with the cat's paw.
The envious will die, but envy never.
All extremes does perfect reason flee, And wishes to be wise quite soberly.
He who establishes his argument by noise and command shows that his reason is weak.
A little inaccuracy sometimes saves a ton of explanation.
Gold gives to the ugliest thing a certain charming air, For that without it were else a miserable affair.
A laudation in Greek is of marvellous efficacy on the title-page of a book.
Heaven forbids, it is true, certain gratifications, but there are ways and means of compounding such matters.

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moli%C3%A8re
http://www.nndb.com/people/160/000025085/
http://www.answers.com/topic/moli-re
http://www.gradesaver.com/author/jean-baptiste-moliere/
http://www.worldofquotes.com/author/jean+baptiste+poquelin+moliere/1/index.html