Sayyed Mahmoud Hessaby

Sayyed Mahmoud Hessaby

date of birth : 23/02/1903 | date of death : 03/09/1992
Born on February 23, 1903 , Iran, Father of Iranian Physics,Professor Hessaby was the only Iranian who closely worked with Professor Einstein.He is one of the very few who transferred modern science and technology from all over the world to Iran.

Birth, Birthplace, Time of birth:

Hessaby was born on February 23, 1903 in Tehran (Iran).

Father's name: Abbas Hessaby
Mother's name: Goharshad Hessaby
Spouse: Sedigheh Haeri
Children:  Iraj Hesabi and Anousheh Hesabi

Reputation, fame, nickname:

Professor Hessaby

Life events:

Hessaby was born in Tehran to Abbas and Goharshad Hessaby. He moved from Iran to Beirut in Lebanon with his family when he was seven years old and he attended school. His studies in high school coincided with the commencement of the First World War, and therefore the French schools, including the one in which he was studying, had to close down. After two years, he went to the American College of Beirut, graduating with a bachelor's degree of Art and Science at the age of seventeen. He obtained his biology degree at the age of nineteen, and then continued his studies in Civil Engineering. He then studied Medical Science, Mathematics and Astronomy. As a graduate of the Engineering School in Beirut, he was admitted to the "EcoleS uperieured' Electricite "and graduated in 1925. At the same time, he was employed by the French Electric Railway Company. He continued his research in Physics on "Sensitivity of Photoelectric Cells" and received his PHD in physics at the age of 25. After that he continued his research in U.S.A. When he was in United States Professor Hessaby met with Professor Albert Einstein. Professor Hessaby was the only Iranian who closely worked with Professor Einstein. Although his theories and views were different from those of Professor Einstein’s, but he still continued to work closely with Professor Einstein. He worked on his theory in Princeton, Chicago and preformed many different experiments to verify his theory. He published the results of his research in 1946 at Princeton University. His theory "Infinitely extended particles" is well known among scientists and made him a senior member of the New York academy of science. In 1973 the medal of "Commandeur de la Legion", France’s greatest scientific medal was awarded to him for his great theory. After completing his PhD returned back to Iran and played a significant role in Iran’s development and modernisation. He taught seven generations of Iranian students. He is one of the very few who transferred modern science and technology from all over the world to Iran. He also played a significant role in the establishment of Universities and scientific centers in Iran. Professor Hessaby established the first University in Iran called Tehran U. Due to his invaluable services, in 1990 he was given the title of "The Father of Physics" and he was a pioneer of modern science in Iran. He had a good command French, English, German and Arabic languages and he also knew Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, Pahlavi, Avesta, Turkish and Italian, which he used for his etymological studies. 25 research papers, articles and books of him have been put to print. His theory of "Infinitely Extended Particles" is well-known among the world scientists.


Bachelor in literature at age seventeen, and then at nineteen received a bachelor in biology. Also received a degree in civil engineering from the French Engineering School graduate was in Beirut. He also in the medical fields, mathematics and astronomy to pay college, In Sorbonne, France, educated in physics and research payments. In 1927 at the age of twenty-five received his physics doctorate, providing treatise titled "sensitivity photoelectric cells, with high rank.

Occupations and Career:

Father of Iranian Physics, Dr. Mahmoud Hessaby (1903-1992) was a prominent Persian scientist, researcher and professor of the University of Tehran. His career included:

  • Determine the road map of Lebanon, (1921-1920)
  • Civil Engineer at Department of Transport in Syria (1923)
  • Employed as civil engineers at Department of Transport in Lebanon (1923)
  • Working in the coal mines Sar France (1925)
  • Working as an electrical engineer in the electric railways of France, Paris (1925)
  • Staff member at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Chicago (1948)
  • Tehran Representative in the Senate (1961-1949)
  • Minister of Culture in the cabinet of Mohammad Mossadegh (1951-1952)
  • The first representative of the International Organization of Space, United Nations (1962-1968)
  • Professor of the University of Tehran

Awards /Honors:

  • Father of Iranian Physics, By Iran's Physical Society
  • The medal of "Commandeur de la Legion d'Honneur", greatest French scientific medal was awarded to him for his theories. (1973)
  • Every five years The American Biographical Institute (ABI) and The International Biographical Center (IBC) select a list of five thousand scientists from all over the world. Among these scientists only one person is chosen as the "World Man of the Year in Science". In 1990 these two institutes gave this title to Professor Mahmoud Hessaby.
  • Accomplishments:
  • According to the Professor Hessaby Institute, the following were some of his accomplishments:
  • Founding the Highway Engineering school and teaching there from 1928
  • Survey and drawing of the first coastal road-map between Persian Gulf ports
  • Founding the "teachers college" and teaching there from 1928
  • Construction of the first radio-set in Iran (1928)
  • Construction of the first weather-station in 1931
  • Installation and operation of the first radiology center in Iran in 1931
  • Calculation and setting of Iranian time (1932)
  • Founding the first private hospital in Iran (Goharshad Hospital) in 1933
  • Writing the University charter and founding Tehran University (1934)
  • Founding the Engineering school in 1934 and acting as the dean of that school until 1936 and teaching there from then on
  • Founding the faculty of science and acting as its dean from 1942 to 1948
  • Commissioned for the dispossession of British Petroleum Company during government of Dr. Mossadegh and appointed as the first general manager of the National Iranian Oil Company
  • Minister of Education in the cabinet of Dr. Mossadegh from 1951 to 1952
  • Opposing the contract with the consortium while in the senate
  • Opposing the membership of Iran in CENTO (Baghdad Pact)
  • Founding the Telecommunication Center of Assad-Abad in Hamedan (1959)
  • Writing the standards charter for the standards Institute of Iran (1954)
  • Founding the Geophysical Institute of Tehran University (1961)
  • Title of distinguished professor of Tehran University from 1971
  • Founding the atomic research center and atomic reactor at Tehran University
  • Founding the atomic Energy center of Iran, member of the UN scientific sub-committee of peaceful use of member of the international space committee (1981)
  • Establishment of Iran's space research committee and member of the international space committee (1981)
  • Establishment of the Iranian music society and founding the Persian language Academy



  • The Hessaby Dictionary
  • Dictionary of Iranian Names
  • Articles for the Establishment of the University of Tehran (1933)
  • Treatise on "Our Path" (1935)
  • Physics textbook for first year in high school (1939
  • Minutes of the meeting of the National Academy of Science (1947)
  • Rules for the University of Tehran Budget (1961)
  • The New Physics and the Philosophy of Ancient Percia (1963)
  • Genealogical Tree of the Hessaby Family (1967)
  • The Power of the Persian Language (1971)
  • "Complete Poetical Works of Hessaby", from the 17th century (1975)
  • "Roots of Persian Words" (1989)
  • "Specialized Terms in Physics" (1961–1990)
  • Dictionary of "French Verbs-Persian Verbs"
  • "The how of Iranian History"
  • Research on and Interpretation of the Poetry of Hafez
  • Research on the "Golestan" of Saadi
  • Research on the Poetry of Baba Taher
  • Research on the "Shahnameh" of Ferdowsi
  • "In Memory of Albert Einstein" on the occasion of his death (1955)


  • "Electrodynamics"
  • "Electric Eye"
  • "Viewpoint in Physics", University of Tehran, 1961
  • "Magnetic Eye", University of Tehran, 1966
  • "Solid State Physics", University of Tehran, 1969
  • "Quantum View" University of Tehran, 1979


  • Doctoral dissertation "Sensitivity of Photoelectric Cells", Sorbonne University Press, 1927
  • Thesis in "The Interpretation of Dubrois Waves", in French, 1945
  • "Structure of Essential Particles of the Nucleus of an Atom in Einstein's Theory of Relativity", Princeton University, 1946
  • Article on "Connected Particles", National Academy of Science, U.S., 1947
  • "The Effect of Matter on the Path of Light" as co-researcher at the Nuclear-science Institute, Chicago, 1947
  • "The Correction of Newton's Law of Gravity". "Maxwell's Law of the Electromagnetic Field" 1947
  • "The Effect of Matter on the Path of Light and the Deviation of Light Waves on the Surface of Matter", Nuclear Science Institute, Chicago, 1947
  • "The Deviation of Light Waves in the Presence of Matter", research at the University of Chicago, 1948
  • Continuation of research on "The Structure of Essential Particles of the Nucleus of an Atom", University of Tehran; laboratory research on "The Transmission of Light through Matter" College of Science, University of Tehran - Thesis on "The Theory of the Diffusion of Infinite Particles", University of Tehran, 1997
  • Research on the formula for the Law of Gravity
  • Research on the formula for the Law of Electrical Attraction
  • Research on the formula for the Law of the Electromagnetic Field
  • Research on the breakage of light near solid matter
  • Research on lasers
  • Research on nuclear magnetic resonance

Key publications:

Hessaby M, Model of an Infinite Particle, Journal de Physique et le Radium 18 (5): 323-326 1957. Times Cited: 0 University of Tehran.
Hessaby M, Theoretical Evidence for the Existence of a Light-Charged Particle of Mass Greater than That of the Electron, Physical Review, Vol. 73, Issue 9, p. 1128 (1948). Times Cited: 1 While at Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
Hessaby M, Continuous Particles, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 189–194 (1947). Times Cited: 0 University of Tehran and Princeton University
Hessaby M, Continuous Particles, Proceedings of the American Physical Society, Minutes of the Meeting at Montreal, June 19–21, 1947,

Hobbies and personal interests:

He was well acquainted with the traditional Iranian music as well as the classical Western music and played piano and violin skillfully. He was active in sports and as a youngster earned his living pardy by acting as a swimming instructor and a life guard at the Mediterranean coast in Beirut.

Death, place of death, Time of death, place of burial:

He died on 03 September 1992 while at Geneva Cardiac Hospital, Switzerland. He was buried in Tafresh (Iran), according to his wish and will.

Quotes and Memoirs:

Professor Einstein once said about him that "One day he will change the direction of physics in the world."("Dr Hessaby, infinitely extended particles" 7)
Dr. Hadad Adel said that, "Professor Hessaby did not use science as a mean to earn money, but to serve humanity" ("Dr. Hessaby, a man with lots of abilities" 31).