Andre Paul Guillaume Gide

Andre Paul Guillaume Gide

|French
date of birth : 19/02/1951 | date of death : 22/11/1869
Born on November 22, 1869 , France, Novelist, Essayist, author , Known for his fiction as well as his autobiographical works, Gide exposes to public view the conflict and eventual reconciliation between the two sides of his personality, split apart by a straitlaced education and a narrow social moralism.

Birth, Birthplace, Time of birth:

He was born on November 22, 1869 in Paris, France.

Father’s name: Paul Gide
Mother’s name: Juliette Rondeaux
Brother: none
Sister: none
Spouse: Madeleine Rondeaux
Children: Catherine Gide

Personal Information:

Religion: Protestant
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Bisexual

Life events:

Early life

Andre-Paul-Guillaume Gide was born in Paris on November 22, 1869. He is the only child of Paul Gide, a Huguenot from Uzes in southern France and a professor of law at the University of Paris and Juliette Rondeaux, a rich heiress of Norman extraction. During 1869-1880 grows up in Paris, near the Luxembourg Gardens. Gide attends private school for young boys and is expelled for masturbation. He begins studying the piano, spends vacations in Uzes and Normandy, enters Ecole Alsacienne but his schooling is often interrupted by illness and nervous conditions. In 1880, Paul Gide dies of intestinal tuberculosis; In 1882 Andre is drawn to his cousin Madeleine Rondeaux, following the discovery of her sorrow concerning her mother's infidelity. He decides to devote himself to her. In 1889 passes his baccalaureat at the Ecole Alsacienne, not required to earn his living, he decides to focus his life on literature.

Literary career

In 1891 joins Stephane Mallarme's circle and is influenced by symbolist aesthetics, Madeleine rejects his proposal of marriage, publishes anonymously and at his expense Les Cahiers d'Andre Walter (The Notebooks of Andre Walter). In 1893-1895 visits North Africa, meets Oscar Wilde and Alfred Douglas, and confronts his homosexual tendencies; publishes Le Voyage d'Urien (Urien's Voyage). In 1895 Gide's mother dies, he gets married MadeleineRondeaux, publishes Paludes (Marshlands). In 1896 elected mayor of La Roque, and is youngest mayor in France. During 1897-1908 publishes numerous works, including The Immoralist (1902), founds La Nouvelle Revue francaise with Jean Schlumberger, Jacques Copeau, and others, publishes La Porte Etroite (Strait is the Gate). In 1914 works with Red Cross and other civilian groups helping Belgian refugees during World War I; publishes Les Caves du Vatican (Lafcadio's Adventures). In 1923, Catherine Gide; daughter of Andre is born to Elizabeth van Rysselberghe. In 1925-1936 Gide's social and political involvement grows, including interest in the Communist Party. In 1925 travels to central Africa, particularly Chad and the Congo, and later criticizes French colonial policy. In 1926 publishes Les Faux-Monnayeurs (The Counterfeiters). In 1936 visits the Soviet Union in June, but is disillusioned by the Soviet system; Madeleine Gide dies. In 1942-1945 stays in North Africa, writes Thesee (Theseus). In 1947 receives honorary doctorate from Oxford University and the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1950 publishes his Journal for the years 1939 to 949, resolves to write nothing else. In 1951 dies February 19, and is buried in Cuverville cemetery beside his wife.

Education:

High School: École Alsacienne, Paris
High School: Lycée Henri-IV

Occupation and Career:

André Paul Guillaume Gide was a French author, novelist, essayist and winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1947.
At the age of 18 Gide started writing. His first book 'Les Cahiers d'Andre Walter' (The Notebooks of Andre Walter, 1891) was well received by his friend Stéphane Mallarmé. Gide's work can be seen as an investigation of freedom and empowerment in the face of moralistic and puritanical constraints, A result of Gide's revolt was the unprecedented freedom with which he wrote about sexual matters in Corydon (privately published 1911, public version 1924), his autobiography Si le grain ne meurt (1924) [If It Die ...], and Gide's lifelong diary Journal 1889 à 1939 (1939), Journal 1939 à 1942 (1948), and Journal 1942 à 1949 (1950). Gide divided his narrative works into soties such as Les Caves du Vatican (1914) [Lafcadio's Adventures] and classically restrained récits, for example, La Porte étroite (1909) [Strait is the Gate] and La Symphonie pastorale (1919). The only work which he considered a novel was the structurally complex and experimental Les Faux Monnayeurs (1926) [The Counterfeiters]. If in the thirties Gide put off one part of the public by his sympathies with communism, his disillusioned report of his journey to Russia, Le Retour de L'U.R.S.S (1936), scandalized another. Gide's interests went far beyond the confines of French literature. He translated Shakespeare, Whitman, Conrad, and Rilke. He was an influential literary critic (Prétextes, 1903; Nouveaux Prétextes, 1911) and was especially attracted to problematic writers like Dostoevsky, about whom he wrote a book (1923). Among Gide's last work was Thésée (1946), like the earlier Oedipe (1931) the reworking of an old myth. Gide's collected works have been published in fifteen volumes (1933-39).

Awards /Honors:

André Gide was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1947. Gide was too ill to attend the ceremony. Gide’s list of accolades includes an Honorary Doctorate from Oxford, an honorary admission to the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and the Goethe Prize.

Books:

  • Les cahiers d'André Walter – 1891
  • Le traité du Narcisse – 1891
  • Les poésies d'André Walter – 1892
  • Le voyage d'Urien – 1893
  • La tentative amoureuse – 1893
  • Paludes – 1895
  • Réflexions sur quelques points de littérature – 1897
  • Les nourritures terrestres – 1897 (translated as The Fruits of the Earth)
  • Feuilles de route 1895–1896 – 1897
  • El Hadj
  • Le Prométhée mal enchaîné – 1899
  • Philoctète – 1899
  • Lettres à Angèle – 1900
  • De l'influence en littérature – 1900
  • Le roi Candaule – 1901
  • Les limites de l'art – 1901
  • L'immoraliste – 1902 (translated by Richard Howard as The Immoralist)
  • Saül – 1903
  • De l'importance du public – 1903
  • Prétextes – 1903
  • Amyntas – 1906
  • Le retour de l'enfant prodigue – 1907
  • Dostoïevsky d'après sa correspondance – 1908
  • La porte étroite – 1909 (translated as Strait Is the Gate)
  • Oscar Wilde – 1910
  • Nouveaux prétextes – 1911
  • Charles-Louis-Philippe – 1911
  • C. R. D. N. – 1911
  • Isabelle – 1911
  • Bethsabé – 1912
  • Souvenirs de la Cour d'Assises – 1914
  • Les caves du Vatican – 1914 (translated as Lafcadio's Adventures and The Vatican Cellars)
  • La marche Turque – 1914
  • La symphonie pastorale – 1919
  • Corydon – 1920
  • Numquid et tu . . . – 1922
  • Dostoïevsky – 1923
  • Incidences – 1924
  • Caractères – 1925
  • Les faux-monnayeurs – 1925 (translated as The Counterfeiters – 1927)
  • Si le grain ne meurt – 1926 (translated as If It Die)
  • Le journal des faux-monnayeurs – 1926
  • Dindiki – 1927
  • Voyage au Congo – 1927
  • Le retour de Tchad – 1928
  • L'école des femmes – 1929
  • Essai sur Montaigne – 1929
  • Un esprit non prévenu – 1929
  • Robert – 1930
  • La séquestrée de Poitiers – 1930
  • L'affaire Redureau – 1930
  • Œdipe – 1931
  • Perséphone – 1934
  • Les nouvelles nourritures – 1935
  • Geneviève – 1936
  • Retour de l'U. R. S. S. – 1936
  • Retouches â mon retour de l'U. R. S. S. – 1937
  • Notes sur Chopin – 1938
  • Journal 1889–1939 – 1939
  • Découvrons Henri Michaux – 1941
  • Thésée – 1946
  • Le retour – 1946
  • Paul Valéry – 1947
  • Le procès – 1947
  • L'arbitraire – 1947
  • Eloges – 1948
  • Littérature engagée – 1950

Hobbies and personal interests:

Pederast, poet, and novelist who opposed fascism and advocated liberation through sensuous hedonism

Death, place of death, Time of death, place of burial:

He died on 19 February 1951 in Paris, France (pneumonia) and was buried at Cimetière de Cuverville, Cuverville, France.

Quotes:

  • "Complete possession is proved only by giving. All you are unable to give possesses you."
  • "Are you then unable to recognize unless it has the same sound as yours?"
  • "Complete possession is proved only by giving. All you are unable to give possesses you."
  • "A straight path never leads anywhere except to the objective."
  • "It is better to be hated for what you are than to be loved for what you are not."
  • "Man is more interesting than men. God made him and not them in his image. Each one is more precious than all."
  • "It is not always by plugging away at a difficulty and sticking to it that one overcomes it; often it is by working on the one next to it. Some things and some people have to be approached obliquely, at an angle."
  • "The most decisive actions of our life -- I mean those that are most likely to decide the whole course of our future -- are, more often than not, unconsidered."
  • "Know thyself. A maxim as pernicious as it is ugly. Whoever studies himself arrest his own development. A caterpillar who seeks to know himself would never become a butterfly."
  • "Most quarrels amplify a misunderstanding."

References:
http://www.poemhunter.com
http://quotationsbook.com
http://www.nndb.com
http://www.egs.edu
http://en.wikipedia.org