Ab'ul Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrow(Amir Khusro)

Ab'ul Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrow(Amir Khusro)

|Indian
date of birth : 1253/04/? | date of death : 27/09/1325
Born in 1253-4 AD in Patiyali, Uttar Pradesh, India,was the poet laureate of the Indian subcontinent and enjoys ever-lasting fame as one of the most versatile poets and prolific prose-writers of the 13th and 14th centuries.

Birth, Birthplace, Time of birth:

Amir Khusro was born in 1253-4 AD in Patiyali, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Father's name: AmīrSaif-ud-DīnMahmūd
Mother's name:-
Brother: -
Sister: -
Spouse: -
Children: Malik Muhammad/ Afifa

Personal Information:

Religion:Muslim

Life events:

Khusro was born in 1253 A.D. in Patiyala, India, His paternal ancestors belonged to the nomadic tribe of Hazaras from Transoxiana, who crossed the river Indus and migrated to India in the thirteenth century. His father was a Turkic officer and a member of the Lachin tribe of Transoxania, themselves belonging to the Kara-Khitais. Khusro lost his father at a young age and then moved in with his maternal grandparents. His grandfather served as an attendance master of soldiers at the royal palace of Emperor Ghayasuddin Balban. Up to 13 years of age he was in the care of his maternal grandfather NawaabImadulMulk. HazratAbul Hassan Amir Khusru was very fond of poetry and art and took interest in the subject from a very early age. In 1271 CE, when Khusrow was 20 years old, his grandfather who was 113 years old died. His mother brought him up after his death. He went to war under several Delhi rulers during 1272 to 1325. He started his career as a courtier of Malik Chajju ‘Ala-ud-din Khan. Later he joined the court of Balban’s elder son Prince Mohammad in Multan and served him for five years who later was killed by the Mongols. Thereafter Amir Khusrau moved to Delhi. His longest association was with the royal court of Ala-ud-din Khalji. He was a man of great talent and learning. When he was forty seven years old, his mother and brother died. Khusro's homage to his mother on death was: "Where ever the dust of your (mother) feet is found it is like a relic of Paradise for me." After the death of Kikabad, a Turk soldier Jalal ud din FiruzKhilji took power and became the King. He appreciated poetry and invited many poets to his court. Khusrow was honoured and respected in his Darbar and was given his name "Amir Khusrow". He was made secretary to the King "Mushaf-Dar". The darbar life made Amir Khusro focus more on his literary works. Khusro’s Ghazals which he composed in quick succession were set to music and were sung by singing girls every night before the king. Hazrat Amir Khusro enjoyed the title of Nayak (a perfect master of music). With this poetic talent and comprehensive knowledge, combined with a mastery in prose, Hazrat Amir Khusro at first found his way to the court of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban who ascended the Delhi throne in 664 AH (1265 AD). There he was patronised by Malik ChajjuKishli Khan, a cousin of the Sultan. Alauddin Khalji gave him 100 tanka (gold coins) annually, and HazratKhusro, as a token of acknowledgement, recorded all the conquests of the king in beautiful masnavi called "Khazain-ul-Futuh" Another masnavi "Taj-ul-Futuh" commemorates the victories of Jalaluddin Firuzshah in 718AH (1318 AD). Hazrat Amir Khusro also dedicated his masnavi "Nuh-Sipihr" to Qutubuddin Mubarakshah. Music formed a major part of his life. He was among the most favorite disciples of Sheikh-ul-MashaikhNizam-ud-din Auliya. To him kaleidoscopic changes in the political world were merely manifestations of the divine will. He believed that earthly love can lead one to divine love. He was a nadeem (a boon companion of a number of kings) but his dedication was held in reserve for Sufi movement. On the completion of his official duties he would rush to Sheikh Nizam-ud-din Auliya’skhanqah. When Sheikh died in 1325, he was with Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq on his Bengal expedition. He was so overwhelmed with grief at hearing the death of his spiritual mentor that he left for his heavenly abode within six months in 1325 (18 Shawwal 725/27 A.H).

Occupations and Career:

He was prolific and staggering writer both in both poetry and prose. He wrote 92 books including Taj-ul-fatah, Tughluqnamah, SheerinKhusrau and Laila majnoon. He was skillful, amazing and outstanding as an intellectual, poet, historian, biographer, courtier, mystic and musician par excellence. Khusrow was an expert in many styles of Persian poetry which were developed in medieval Persia, from Khāqānī's qasidas to Nizami'skhamsa. He used 11 metrical schemes with 35 distinct divisions. He has written in many verse forms including Ghazal, Masnavi, Qata, Rubai, Do-Beti and Tarkibhand. His contribution to the development of the g͟hazal, is significant. Khusrau created Indian ragas, blended Arabic and Iranian usuls and maqaans imaginatively. He also created musical forms like tarana, qawwali, and gul. Hindus gave the title of Nayak (one who is proficient in the art of music both in theory and practice) to none other but to Amir Khusrau, not even to Tan Sen who was only a Gandharb (one who is proficient in the practice of music). His contribution to the Indian music is so prominent that he has been justly called by Dr. Mukerjee as the Leonardo de Vinci of India. He wrote and sang so many beautiful songs in different tunes that he is also known as Tuti-i-Hind (Songbird of India). Khusro wrote a “Kasida” in the praise of Hazrat Nizamuddeen Auliya MehboobeIlahi Ra. Who was overjoyed on listening to it and asked Hazrat Abul Hassan Amir Khusru Ra. to ask for anything he wanted to which Hazrat Abul Hassan Amir Khusru said he wanted his art to be sweet and have impact. Hazrat Nizamuddeen Auliya MehboobeIlahi Ra. asked Hazrat Abul Hassan Amir Khusru Ra. to eat from the sugar which was kept in a plate under his bed, After this his words became sweet and would make the listeners ecstatic. Khusrau wrote Hindi poetry replete with simplicity and spontaneity. His first diwan, Tuhfatu’s Sighar (gifts of childhood) was written in1272-73. In his Persian work NuhSipihr, he gives an account of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah’s reign and eloquently raises Indian sciences, religion and other products of the Indian genius. In this book he challenges the Persian poets and sings of his native land with its hoary past. Apart from lyrics qasidahs that he completed in three years, in Qiran al-Sa’dain he gives an account of the historic meeting of Bughra Khan and Kaiqubad on the bank of the river Sarju, and contains an interesting description of Delhi of those days. His Ashiqah is an excellent narration of the romance of the Gujarati princess, Dewal Devi and Prince Khizr Khan, son of Ala-ud-din Khalji. Tughlaq Nama describes the successful expedition of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq against the usurper Khusrau Khan. Khusraw was prompted to write historical works in order to comply with requests from his patrons, but in reality he was not interested in historiography. Amir Khusro wrote a short auto-biographical Masnavi called "Shah Name mun"—of Alauddin’s life. Khusrow in his book "Khazinatul-Futuh" (the treasures of victory) recorded Alauddin’s construction works, wars, peace and security, administrative services.

Works:

  • Tuhfa-tus-Sighr (Offering of a Minor) his first divan, contains poems composed between the age of 16 and 19
  • Wastul-Hayat (The Middle of Life) his second divan
  • Ghurratul-Kamaal (The Prime of Perfection) poems composed between the age of 34 and 43
  • Baqia-Naqia (The Rest/The Miscellany) compiled at the age of 64
  • QissaChaharDarvesh The Tale of the Four Dervishes
  • Nihayatul-Kamaal (The Height of Wonders) compiled probably a few weeks before his death.
  • Qiran-us-Sa’dain (Meeting of the Two Auspicious Stars) Mathnavi about the historic meeting of Bughra Khan and his son Kikabad after long enmity (1289)
  • Miftah-ul-Futooh (Key to the Victories) in praise of the victories of Jalal ud din FiruzKhilji (1291)
  • Ishqia/Mathnavi Duval Rani-Khizr Khan (Romance of Duval Rani and Khizr Khan) a tragic love poem about Gujarat’s princess Duval andAlauddin’s son Khizr (1316)
  • Noh Sepehr (Mathnavi of the Nine Skies) Khusrau’s perceptions of India and its culture (1318)
  • Tarikh-i-Alai (Times of Alauddin)
  • TughluqNama (Book of the Tughluqs) a history of the reign on Tughlaq dynasty (1320)
  • Khamsa-e-Nizami (Khamsa-e-Khusrau) five classical romances: Hasht-Bahisht, Matlaul-Anwar, Sheerin-Khusrau, Majnun-Laila and Aaina-Sikandari
  • Ejaaz-e-Khusrovi (The Miracles of Khusrau) an assortment of prose
  • Khazain-ul-Futooh (The Treasures of Victories)
  • Afzal-ul-Fawaid utterances of NizamuddinAuliya
  • ḲhāliqBārī a versified glossary of Persian, Arabic, and Hindavi words and phrases often attributed to Amir Khusrau. ḤāfizMaḥmūdShīrānī argued that it was completed in 1622 in Gwalior by Ẓiyāud-DīnḲhusrau.
  • Jawahar-e- Khusrovi often dubbed as the Hindawi divan ofKhusrau

Death, place of death, Time of death, place of burial:

He breathed his last on 27 September 1325 AD and was buried a small distance away from the resting place of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya.
References:
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://storyofpakistan.com
http://www.hazratbakhtiyarkaki.com
http://www.sufiwiki.com