Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein

|German
date of birth : 14/03/1879 | date of death : 18/04/1955
Born on March 14, 1879, German, Physicist, Scientist, His great intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius.

Birth, Birthplace, Time of birth:

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879.

Father’s name: Hermann Einstein
Mother’s name: Pauline Koch
Brother: -
Sister: Maria "Maja" Einstein
Spouse: Mileva Marić (1903–1919), Elsa Löwenthal (1919–1936)
Children: Lieserl, Hans Albert, Eduard, Ilse and Margot Einstein

Personal Information:

Height: 5' 9" (1.75 m)
Religion: Atheist
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight

Life events:

Synopsis

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch). Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree.

Citizenship

During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

Albert Einstein‘s theory

After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next advance. At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics. In the 1920's, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology. After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists. Einstein's researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important. Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920's he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935. Einstein's gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation; music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.

Education:

High School: Luitpold Gymnasium, Munich (dropped out)
High School: Staatsarchiv Kanton, Aarau, Switzerland (1896)
University: BS Mathematics & Physics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (1901)
University: PhD Physics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (1905)

Occupation and Career:

Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, affecting a revolution in physics.
Teacher: Physics, University of Bern (1908-09)
Teacher: Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich (1909-11)
Professor: Theoretical Physics, Karl-Ferdinand University, Prague (1911-12)
Professor: Theoretical Physics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (1912-14)
Professor: Theoretical Physics, University of Berlin (1914-32)
Administrator: Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, Berlin (1917-32)
Professor: Theoretical Physics, Institute for Advanced Study (1932-45)

Awards /Honors:

In 1922, Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". This refers to his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect, "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light", which was well supported by the experimental evidence by that time. The presentation speech began by mentioning "his theory of relativity [which had] been the subject of lively debate in philosophical circles [and] also has astrophysical implications which are being rigorously examined at the present time". (Einstein 1923) It was long reported that, in accord with the divorce settlement, the Nobel Prize money had been deposited in a Swiss bank account for his ex-wife Maric to draw on the interest for herself and their two sons, while she could only use the capital by agreement with Einstein. However, personal correspondence made public in 2006[3] shows that he invested much of it in the United States, and saw much of it wiped out in the Great Depression. However, ultimately he paid Maric more money than he received with the prize. In 1929, Max Planck presented Einstein with the Max Planck medal of the German Physical Society in Berlin, for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics. In 1936, Einstein was awarded the Franklin Institute's Franklin Medal for his extensive work on relativity and the photo-electric effect. The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics named 2005 the "World Year of Physics" in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the publication of the annus mirabilis papers. The Albert Einstein Science Park is located on the hill Telegrafenberg in Potsdam, Germany. The best known building in the park is the Einstein Tower which has a bronze bust of Einstein at the entrance. The Tower is an astrophysical observatory that was built to perform checks of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. The Albert Einstein Memorial in central Washington, D.C. is a monumental bronze statue depicting Einstein seated with manuscript papers in hand. The statue, commissioned in 1979, is located in a grove of trees at the southwest corner of the grounds of the National Academy of Sciences on Constitution Avenue. The chemical element 99, einsteinium, was named for him in August 1955, four months after Einstein's death. 2001 Einstein is an inner main belt asteroid discovered on 5 March 1973. In 1999 Time magazine named him the Person of the Century, ahead of Mahatma Gandhi and Franklin Roosevelt, among others. In the words of a biographer, "to the scientifically literate and the public at large, Einstein is synonymous with genius". Also in 1999, an opinion poll of 100 leading physicists ranked Einstein the "greatest physicist ever". A Gallup poll recorded him as the fourth most admired person of the 20th century in the U.S. In 1990, his name was added to the Walhalla temple for "laudable and distinguished Germans",[16] which is located east of Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany. The United States Postal Service honored Einstein with a Prominent Americans series (1965–1978) 8¢ postage stamp. In 2008, Einstein was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.

Book:

  • Relativity: The Special and General Theory (1920, non-fiction)
  • The Meaning of Relativity (1922, non-fiction)
  • Sidelights on Relativity (1922, non-fiction)
  • Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement (1926, non-fiction)
  • About Zionism: Speeches and Letters (1930)
  • Cosmic Religion: With other Opinions and Aphorisms (1931, essays)
  • Builders of the Universe: From the Bible to the Theory of Relativity (1932, non-fiction)
  • Essays in Science (1934, non-fiction)
  • The World as I See It (1934, political essays)
  • Out of My Later Years (1950, political essays)
  • Elie Cartan-Albert Einstein: Letters on Absolute Parallelism, 1929-1932 (1979, posthumous, with Élie Cartan)
  • Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1979, correspondance and essays)
  • The Born-Einstein Letters (1971, correspondence with Max Born)
  • The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein (1998, eight volumes)
  • Dear Professor Einstein\ Albert Einstein's Letters to and from Children (2002, correspondence)
  • A Stubbornly Persistent Illusion: The Essential Works of Albert Einstein (2007, collected papers)

Death, place of death, Time of death, place of burial:

He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey. During the autopsy, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location.

Legacy:

Some years after Einstein published the General Theory of Relativity in 1916, he began to formulate an even more ambitious theory. Professional positions, first in Berlin and later in Princeton, gave him the latitude to work at his own pace. And after his wife Elsa died in 1936, Einstein's life increasingly centered on his work. Einstein was driven by a vision. His goal was to describe all physical phenomena--from the smallest subatomic particles to the entire universe--under the umbrella of a "Grand Unified Theory." He never succeeded. But Einstein's dream did not die with him; the quest for the Grand Unified Theory is one of the hottest topics pursued in physics today. Einstein's work laid the foundation for much of the research into the evolution of the universe as well as modern technology, including lasers and computer chips. His enduring legacy will continue to inspire generations of great thinkers.

Quotes and Memoirs:

  • "Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius -- and a lot of courage -- to move in the opposite direction."
  • "Imagination is more important than knowledge."
  • "Gravitation is not responsible for people falling in love."
  • "I want to know God's thoughts; the rest are details."
  • "The hardest thing in the world to understand is the income tax."
  • "Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one."
  • "The only real valuable thing is intuition."
  • "A person starts to live when he can live outside himself."
  • "I am convinced that He (God) does not play dice."
  • "God is subtle but he is not malicious."
  • "Weakness of attitude becomes weakness of character."
  • "I never think of the future. It comes soon enough."
  • "The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility."
  • "Sometimes one pays most for the things one gets for nothing."
  • "Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind."
  • "Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new."
  • "Great spirits have often encountered violent opposition from weak minds."
  • "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler."
  • "Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen."
  • "Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it."
  • "The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources."
  • "The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education."
  • "God does not care about our mathematical difficulties. He integrates empirically."
  • "The whole of science is nothing more than a refinement of everyday thinking."
  • "Technological progress is like an axe in the hands of a pathological criminal."
  • "Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding."

In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness . . . There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn."

References:
http://www.nobelprize.org
http://www.amnh.org
http://www.nndb.com
http://www.goodreads.com
http://rescomp.stanford.edu