Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln

|American
date of birth : 12/02/1809 | date of death : 15/04/1865
Born on February 12, 1809, America, was the 16th president of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

Birth, Birthplace, Time of birth:

Abraham Lincoln was born on Feb 12, 1809 in Kentucky (Unites States).

Father's name: Thomas Lincoln
Mother's name: Nancy Hanks Lincoln, Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln (stepmother)
Brother: Dennis and Thomas Lincoln
Sister: Sarah Lincoln Grigsby
Spouse: Mary Todd Lincoln (m. 4-Nov-1842, d. 1882)
Children: Robert, Edward, William, Tad

Reputation, fame, nickname:

Abe Lincoln

Personal Information:

Party Affiliation: Republican
Religion: Atheist
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight

Life events:

Abraham "Abe" Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States. He is considered one of the greatest figures in the history of the United States. Lincoln was born in Hodgenville, Kentucky on Feb 12, 1809. Raised by poor parents, he was the second child of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Lincoln (née Hanks). He received less than a year of formal education by the time he reached the age of 21. His primary means of education was schooling at home, using borrowed books and the Bible. At the age of 22, he moved to the Illinois village of New Salem in 1831, and continued his self-education by borrowing books and teaching himself subjects such as grammar, history, mathematics, and law. He worked as a store clerk in two different general stores. He taught himself surveying, and worked part time at this vocation. He was also appointed postmaster, and served in the militia for 3 months during the Black Hawk war. Less than a year after moving to New Salem, he ran for the state legislature. Although defeated in this initial effort he decided to run again the next term. His second effort proved successful, and he was elected one of Sangamon County's Whig representatives to the Illinois State Legislature in 1834. Vocally anti-slavery, he served four consecutive terms as state legislator, and before he had left that office was admitted to the Illinois bar. He soon became one of the most respected lawyers in the region, known for his honesty and influential manner with juries. In 1842 Lincoln married Mary Todd, a well-educated woman of a notable Kentucky family. They eventually had four sons, only one of which (Robert Todd Lincoln) survived to manhood. From 1847 to 1849 Lincoln served a single term in Congress, and then went into semi-retirement from politics in order to concentrate more on his law practice. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which allowed for the propagation of slavery into the new territories, became a catalyst to Lincoln's decision to seek political office again. He joined the new Republican Party in 1856 and ran for the US Senate in 1858, providing energetic moral argument against slavery in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates with Stephen A. Douglas. Even though Lincoln lost the Senate race to Douglas, he was elected President in 1860. As a result of his nomination, eleven southern states declared their independence from the Union. When the South fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor on April 12, 1861, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to help put down the rebellion. After over a year of indecisive fighting, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing the slaves of the rebelling southern states. The Emancipation Proclamation took effect on January 1, 1863. Subsequent Union victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga soon had the Southern armies permanently on the defensive. It was during a dedication ceremony at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on November 19, 1863 that he presented the Gettysburg Address, now recognized as one of the world's greatest speeches. Lincoln was re-elected president in November of 1864. Lincoln pushed the Thirteenth Amendment" freeing all slaves everywhere, through congress in late 1864/early 1865. After a great deal of political maneuvering on the part of Lincoln, the House of Representatives passed the Thirteenth Amendment on January 31, 1865. Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, delivered less than 6 weeks before his assassination, eloquently summed up his beliefs. These were that the underlying cause of the war had been slavery, the war was God's punishment on the nation for its failure to remove slavery from the land, and it was every American's duty to not only eliminate slavery, but to re-unite the nation, forgive his or her fellow man, and build a lasting peace among all nations. Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 and died the following day.

Marriage and children:

Lincoln's first romantic interest was Ann Rutledge, whom he met when he first moved to New Salem; by 1835, they were in a relationship but not formally engaged. She died at the age of 22 on August 25, 1835, most likely of typhoid fever. In the early 1830s, he met Mary Owens from Kentucky when she was visiting her sister. Late in 1836, Lincoln agreed to a match with Mary if she returned to New Salem. Mary did return in November 1836, and Lincoln courted her for a time; however, they both had second thoughts about their relationship. On August 16, 1837, Lincoln wrote Mary a letter suggesting he would not blame her if she ended the relationship. She never replied and the courtship ended. In 1840, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd, who was from a wealthy slave-holding family in Lexington, Kentucky. They met in Springfield, Illinois, in December 1839 and were engaged the following December. A wedding set for January 1, 1841, was canceled when the two broke off their engagement at Lincoln's initiative. They later met again at a party and married on November 4, 1842, in the Springfield mansion of Mary's married sister. While preparing for the nuptials and feeling anxiety again, Lincoln, when asked where he was going, replied, "To hell, I suppose." In 1844, the couple bought a house in Springfield near Lincoln's law office. Mary Todd Lincoln kept house, often with the help of a relative or hired servant girl. Robert Todd Lincoln was born in 1843 and Edward Baker Lincoln (Eddie) in 1846. Lincoln "was remarkably fond of children” and the Lincolns were not considered to be strict with their children. Edward died on February 1, 1850, in Springfield, probably of tuberculosis. "Willie" Lincoln was born on December 21, 1850, and died on February 20, 1862. The Lincolns' fourth son, Thomas "Tad" Lincoln, was born on April 4, 1853, and died of heart failure at the age of 18 on July 16, 1871. Robert was the only child to live to adulthood and have children. His last descendant, grandson Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, died in 1985. The deaths of their sons had profound effects on both parents. Later in life, Mary struggled with the stresses of losing her husband and sons, and Robert Lincoln committed her temporarily to a mental health asylum in 1875. Abraham Lincoln suffered from "melancholy", a condition which now is referred to as clinical depression. Lincoln's father-in-law was based in Lexington, Kentucky; he and others of the Todd family were either slave owners or slave traders. Lincoln was close to the Todds, and he and his family occasionally visited the Todd estate in Lexington. He was an affectionate, though often absent, husband and father of four children.

Religious and philosophical beliefs:

As a young man, Lincoln was clearly a religious skeptic, or in the words of a biographer, even an iconoclast. Later in life, Lincoln's frequent use of religious imagery and language might have reflected his own personal beliefs or might have been a device to appeal to his audiences, who were mostly evangelical Protestants. He never joined a church, although he frequently attended with his wife, but he was deeply familiar with the Bible, quoted it and praised it. In the 1840s Lincoln subscribed to the Doctrine of Necessity, a belief that asserted the human mind was controlled by some higher power. In the 1850s, Lincoln acknowledged "providence" in a general way, and rarely used the language or imagery of the evangelicals; he regarded the republicanism of the Founding Fathers with an almost religious reverence. When he suffered the death of his son Edward, Lincoln more frequently acknowledged his own need to depend on God. The death of his son Willie in February 1862 may have caused Lincoln to look toward religion for answers and solace. After Willie's death, Lincoln considered why, from a divine standpoint, the severity of the war was necessary. He wrote at this time that God "could have either saved or destroyed the Union without a human contest. Yet the contest began. And having begun He could give the final victory to either side any day. Yet the contest proceeds." On the day Lincoln was assassinated, he reportedly told his wife Mary at Ford's Theatre he desired to visit the Holy Land.

Education:

He attended school for less than a year, but taught himself to read and write.

Occupation and Career:

Abraham was a Politician, Attorney and the 16th President of the United States.
He had a thirst for knowledge and worked very hard to excel in his studies. This led him to become trained as a lawyer. He spent eight years working on the Illinois court circuit; his ambition, drive and capacity for hard work were evident to all around him. As a lawyer, Abraham developed a great capacity for quick thinking and oratory. His interest in public issues encouraged him to stand for public office. In 1854 he was elected to the House of Representatives and he tried to gain nomination for the Senate in 1858. Although he lost this election, his debating skills caused him to become well known within the Republican Party. This reputation caused him to be elected as Republican nominee for President in 1860. The election of Lincoln as President in 1861 sparked the South to succeed from the North. Southern independence sentiment had been growing for many years and the election of a president opposed to slavery was the final straw. However, Lincoln resolutely opposed the breakaway of the South and so this led to the American civil war. The civil war was much more costly than many people anticipated and at times Lincoln appeared to be losing the support of the general population. But, he managed to keep the Republican Party together, stifling dissent by promoting the various Republican factions into the cabinet. Lincoln oversaw many of the military aspects of the war and promoted the general Ulysses S Grant to oversee the northern forces. Although the war was primarily about succession and the survival of the Union, Lincoln also issued his memorable Emancipation Proclamation that declared the freedom of slaves within the Confederacy. Eventually, after four years of attrition, the Federal forces secured the surrender of the defeated south. Lincoln had saved the union and also brought to head the end of slavery.

Hobbies and personal interests:

He loved to read stories, speeches and memorize poetry. He liked to go to the theater. He played chess.

Death, place of death, Time of death, place of burial:

Lincoln was assassinated on 15 April 1865 in Petersen House, Washington, D.C., U.S. He was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery and Abbey, Springfield, Illinois, US.

Quotes and Memoirs:

  • Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out and remove all doubt.
  • America will never be destroyed from the outside. If we falter and lose our freedoms, it will be because we destroyed ourselves.
  • Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration.
  • Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power.
  • You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.
  • A friend is one who has the same enemies as you have.
  • Character is like a tree and reputation like a shadow. The shadow is what we think of it; the tree is the real thing.
  • In the end, it's not the years in your life that count. It's the life in your years.

References:
http://www.biographyonline.net
http://www.greatamericanhistory.net
http://www.nndb.com
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.brainyquote.com